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Find a copy in the library Finding libraries that hold this item This fifth edition provides information on techniques needed to analyze foods for chemical and physical properties. Reviews User-contributed reviews Add a review and share your thoughts with other readers. Be the first. Add a review and share your thoughts with other readers. Industrial chemistry. Spectrum analysis, spectrochemistry, mass spectrometry.
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S Suzanne Nielsen. Food -- Analysis. All topics covered include information on the basic principles, procedures, advantages, limitations, and applications. This book is ideal for undergraduate courses in food analysis and is also an invaluable reference to professionals in the food industry. General information is provided on regulations, standards, labeling, sampling and data handling as background for chapters on specific methods to determine the chemical composition and characteristics of foods.
Large, expanded sections on spectroscopy and chromatography also are included. Other methods and instrumentation such as thermal analysis, ion-selective electrodes, enzymes, and immunoassays are covered from the perspective of their use in the analysis of foods. A website with related teaching materials is accessible to instructors who adopt the textbook. To successfully base decisions on results of any analysis, one must correctly conduct all three major steps in the analysis: 1 select and prepare samples, 2 perform the assay, and 3 calculate and interpret the results.
The choice of analysis method is usually based on the objective of the analysis, characteris-tics of the method itself e. Validation of the method is important, as is the use of standard reference materials to ensure quality results.
Rapid methods used for quality assessment in a produc-tion facility may be less accurate but much faster than official methods used for nutritional labeling. These meth-ods allow for comparison of results between different laboratories and for evaluation of new or more rapid procedures. Identify six reasons you might need to determine certain chemical characteristics of a food product as part of a quality management program.
You are considering the use of a new method to measure Compound X in your food product. List six factors you will consider before adopting this new method in your quality assurance laboratory. For each type of product listed below, identify a publica-tion in which you can find standard methods of analysis appropriate for the product: a Ice cream b Enriched flour c Wastewater from food processing plant d Margarine 1. Flickinger B Challenges and solutions in compo-sitional analysis.
Food Quality 3 19 —26 2. Spence JT Challenges related to the composition of functional foods. Alli I Food quality assurance: principles and practices. Vasconcellos JA Quality assurances for the food industry: a practical approach. Multon J-L Analysis and control methods for foods and agricultural products, vol 1: quality control for foods and agricultural products. Wiley, New York 6. Linden G, Hurst WJ Analysis and control meth-ods for foods and agricultural products, vol 2: analytical techniques for foods and agricultural products.
Wiley, New York 7. Wiley, New York 8. Pearson D Introduction — some basic principles of quality control, Ch. In: Laboratory techniques in food analysis. Wiley, New York, pp 1—26 9. Chapman Hall, New York Jones L Chemical analysis of food: an introduc-tion. Tothill IE Rapid and on-line instrumentation for food quality assurance. Nollett LML Handbook of food analysis, 2nd edn, vol 1: physical characterization and nutrient analysis, vol 2: residues and other food component analysis.
Otles S Methods of analysis of food components and additives. Woodhead, Cambridge, England Otles S Handbook of food analysis instruments. Elsevier Science, Amsterdam, The Netherlands Referee 17 7 : 1, 6, 7 Lovett RA U.
Inside Lab Manage 1 4 —28 Cereal Foods World 46 5 — Anal Bioanal Chem — Inside Lab Manage 1 8 —35 Latimer GW Jr Check sample programs keep laboratories in sync. Inside Lab Manage 1 4 —20 Ambrus A Quality assurance, Ch. In: Tadeo JL ed Analysis of pesticides in food and environmental samples.
CRC, New York, p Paul, MN AOCS Official methods and recommended practices, 6th edn. Pharmacopeia USP Food chemicals codex, 6th edn.
United Book, Baltimore, MD 1. Federal laws and regulations reinforce the efforts of the food indus-try to provide wholesome foods, to inform consumers about the nutritional composition of foods, and to eliminate economic frauds. In some cases, they dic-tate what ingredients a food must contain, what must be tested, and the procedures used to analyze foods for safety factors and quality attributes. This chapter describes the US federal regulations related to the com-position of foods.
The reader is referred to references 1—4 for comprehensive coverage of US food laws and regulations. Many of the regulations referred to in this chapter are published in the various titles of the Code of Federal Regulations CFR 5.
This chapter also includes information about food standards and safety practices established by international organizations. Internet addresses are given at the end of this chapter for many of the government agencies, organizations, and documents discussed. The FDA is responsible for regulating, among other things, the safety of foods, cosmetics, drugs, medical devices, biologicals, and radiological products.
It acts under laws passed by the US Congress to monitor the affected industries and ensure the consumer of the safety of such products. A comprehensive collection of federal laws, guidelines, and regulations relevant to foods and drugs has been published by the Food and Drug Law Institute 1, 2. This law, which broadened the scope of the Food and Drug Act of , further defined and set reg-ulations on adulterated and misbranded foods.
The FDA was given power to seize illegal products and to imprison and fine violators. An important part of the Act relevant to food analysis is the section that authorizes food definitions and standards of identity, as further described below.
The Miller Pes-ticide Amendment was added in to specify the acceptable amount of pesticide residues on fresh fruits, vegetables, and other raw agricultural products when they enter the marketplace. The Food Additives Amendment enacted in was designed to protect the health of consumers by requiring a food additive to be proven safe before addition to a food and to permit the food industry to use food additives that are safe at the intended level of use.
The highly controversial Delaney Clause, attached as a rider to this amendment, prohibits the FDA fromsetting any tolerance level as a food additive for substances known to be carcinogenic. The Color Additives Amendment of defines color additives, sets rules for both certified and uncer-tified colors, provides for the approval of color addi-tives that must be certified or are exempt from certifi-cation, and empowers the FDA to list color additives for specific uses and set quantity limitations.
The NLEA emphasized the relationship between diet and health and provided consumers a means to choose foods based on complete and truthful label information. Regulations for dietary supplements permit claims not allowed for traditional foods.
Control and regulation of dietary supplements have been separated from those for traditional foods. Most of them are published in Title 21 of the CFR. The food labeling regulations include nutri-tional labeling requirements and guidelines and spe-cific requirements for nutrient content, health claims, and descriptive claims discussed in Chap.
There has been increased responsibility placed on the food industry and different regulatory agencies to better ensure the safe handling of foods eaten by consumers. The GMP regulations, legally based on the FDC Act, but not established as a proposed rule until , are designed to prevent adulterated food in the marketplace 7, 8.
The GMP regulations define requirements for acceptable sanitary operation in food plants and include the following relevant to food processing: 1. General provisions that define and interpret the detailed regulations 2.
Requirements and expectations formaintaining grounds, buildings, and facilities 3. Requirements and expectations for design, con-struction, and maintenance of equipment 4. Requirements for production and process controls 5. Within the past few decades, the overall approach has expanded to be used as the most effective method of hazard risk reduction and control in all areas of the food flow, including production, agriculture, distribution, manufacturing, and retail food establishments.
A flow diagram of the process is developed to further describe the process used. For each step in the process flow, the HACCP program approach is based on seven principles identified below: 1. Determine potential microbial, chemical, and physical hazards in each step of the process flow. Identify critical control points in the process. Establish control limits for each critical control point.
Establish procedures to monitor control points. Establish corrective actions when limits of control point are exceeded. Establish appropriate system of record keeping. Establish program to verify and validate efficacy of program.
The standards of identity, which have been set for a wide variety of food products, are most relevant to the chemical analysis of foods because they specifically establish which ingredients a food must contain.
They limit the amount of water permitted in certain products. The minimum levels for expensive ingredients are often set, and maximum levels for inexpensive ingredients are sometimes set. The standards of identity for some foods include a list of optional ingre-dients. The standard of identity for sour cream 21 CFR Table summarizes Sour cream results from the souring, by lactic acid producing bacteria, of pasteurized cream.
Sour cream contains not less than 18 percent milkfat; except that when the food is characterized by the addition of nutritive sweeteners or bulky flavoring ingredients, the weight of the milkfat is not less than 18 percent of the remainder obtained by subtracting the weight of such optional ingredients from the weight of the food; but in no case does the food contain less than Sour cream has a titratable acidity of not less than 0. The full name of the food shall appear on the principal display panel of the label in type of uniform size, style, and color.
Each of the ingredients used in the food shall be declared on the label as required by the applicable sections of parts and of this chapter. Note that the standard of identity often includes the recommended analytical method for determining chemical composition. Although standards of quality and fill are less related to the chemical analysis of foods than are stan-dards of identity, they are important for economic and quality control considerations. Standards of quality, established by the FDA for some canned fruits and vegetables, set minimum standards and specifications for factors such as color, tenderness, weight of units in the container, and freedom from defects.
The stan-dards of fill established for some canned fruits and vegetables, tomato products, and seafood state how full a container must be to avoid consumer deception. However, the FDA shares responsibilities with other regula-tory agencies for certain foods, as described in later sections of this chapter.
The FDA monitors appropriate foods for composition and characteristics relevant to the standards of identity, standards of qual-ity, standards of fill, nutrition labeling, and other labeling regulations.
It regulates color additives and the use of food additives for all foods. The FDA, together with other federal agencies described in this chapter and with state and local governments, works to help ensure the quality and safety of food in the USA.
Some specific examples of how FDA interacts with other agencies regarding the safety and analysis of foods follow. Working with the National Marine Fisheries Service to ensure seafood safety, the FDA sets and enforces allowable levels of contaminants and pathogenic microorganisms in seafood.