Many imagine that Grimm made the law not many years ago, since which time Latin and Anglo-Saxon have been bound to obey it. But the word law is then strangely misapprehended ; it is only a law in the sense of an observed fact.
Latin and Anglo-Saxon were thus differentiated in limes preceding the earliest record of the latter, and the difference might have been observed in the eighth century if any one had had the wits to observe it.
When the difference has once been perceived, and all other A. As to the Gk. But the A. But in charity, the ch is French, due to a peculiar pronunciation of the Latin c, and the F.
Those who are confirmed in their prejudices and have no guide but the ear which they neglect to train , will remain of the same opinion still; but some beginners may perhaps take heed, and if they do, will see matters in a new light.
To all who have acquired any philological knowledge, these things are wearisome. Suppose we take two Latin words such as caritas and carus. The former has a stem car-i-tat- ; the latter has a stem car-o-, which may very easily turn into car-i-. We are perfectly confident that the adjective came first into existence, and that the sb. It is a rule in all Aryan languages that words started from monosyllabic roots or bases, and were built up by supplying new suffixes at the end ; and, the greater the number of suffixes, the later the formation.
When apparent exceptions to this law present themselves, they require especial attention ; but as long as the law is followed, it is all in the natural course of things.
Simple as this canon seems, it is frequently not observed ; the consequence being that a word A is said to be derived from B, whereas B is its own offspring. The result is a reasoning in a circle, as it is called ; we go round and round, but there is no progress upward and backward, which is the direction in which we should travel.
Thus Richardson derives chine from ' F. Putting eschine and eschiner side by side, the shorter form is the more original. This canon, requiring us to compare vowel-sounds, is a little more difficult, but it is extremely important.
In many dictionaries it is utterly neglected, whereas the information to be obtained from vowels is often extremely certain ; and few things are more beautifully regular than the occasionally complex, yet often decisive manner in which, especially in the Teutonic languages, one vowel-sound is educed from another.
The very fact that the A. In the same way the vowel e in the verb to set owes its very existence to the vowel a in the past tense of the verb to sit; and so on in countless instances. The other canons require no particular comment. The following is a list of the principal books referred to in the Dictionary, with a statement, in most instances, of the editions which I have actually used.
The abbreviation ' E. The date within square brackets at the end of a notice refers to the probable date of composition of a poem or other work. Aasen ; see Norwegian. Abbott's Shakespearian Grammar. Third Edition, Fox, Version of the history of the world by Orosius ; ed. Bosworth, London, Whelock, Smith, Sweet ; E. Zupitza, Berlin, Joseph Stevenson.
Roxburghe Club, Morris; E. Carl Horstmann. Paderborn, Ancren Riwle ; ed. Camden Soc, Ettmiiller, L. Anglo-Saxon Chronicle; ed. Thorpe; 2 vols. Record Series. Earle, Anglo-Saxon Gospels. The Gospel of St. Matthew, in Anglo- Saxon and Northumbrian Versions, ed.
Kemble ; Cam- bridge, Mark, ed. Skeat; Cambridge, Luke, ed. Skeat ; Cambridge, John, Anturs of Arthur; see Robson. A Dictionary, Persian, Arabic, and English. Rich- ardson ; new edition, by F. London, English Reprints, ed. Arber ; various dates. Arber, E. Arnold's Chronicle ; reprinted from the First Edition, with the additions included in the Second.
London, 1. Arber, The Scholemaster, ed. Atkinson's Glossary of the Cleveland Dialect. Awdelay's Fraternity ofVagabonds, ed. Viles and Fumivall ; E. Morris, E. Fumivall, E. Aldis Wright ; Clarendon Press, Oxford, Singer, London, Also ed. Aldis Wright, London, Life of Henry VH, ed. Lumby, English Dictionary, Vol. Second Edition, Skeat, E. Our English Surnames, by C. Bardsley ; London, n. Barnes, R. Bartsch, K. Chrestomathie de I'ancien P'ran9ais; Leipzig, Larramendi, M.
San Sebastian, Bayerisches Worterbucli, von J. Schmeller, Four Parts, Stutlgart, Beaumont and Fletcher, Works of, ed. Darley, 2 Vols. Be Domes Dcege, ed. Lumby, E. Benfey ; see Sanskrit. Beowulf; ed. Thorpe, Oxford and London, 1S Berners ; see Froissart. Beryn, The Tale of, ed. Fumivall ; Chaucer Society, Bestiary; see Old English Miscellany, [ab. Tumbull, Edinburgh, cited by Strat- mann. Imprinted at London by Jhon Day, Biblesworth, Walter de, the treatise of; pr.
Auctoritate edita. Parisiis, Blackstone's Commentaries cited in Richardson, and Todd's John- son. Second Edition. Blount, T. Wright; Camden Soc, London, See also the reprint in Matzner's Altenglische Sprachproben, pp. Lowndes ; New Edition, by H. Bohn, Croker, Joseph Bosworth, D.
London, J. Brachet, A. Kitchin, Brand, John, M. Observations on Popular Antiquities. Arranged and revised, with additions, by H. Republished, in Bohn's Antiquarian Library, 3 vols. Bremen Worterbuch ; Versuch eines bremish-nieders'achsischen Wor- terbuchs, herausgegeben von der bremischen deutschen Gesellschaft, 5 vols.
Bremen, 1 Brende, J. Dictionnaire Breton-Fran9ais, par J. Le Gonidec; Angouleme, Brockett, J. Newcastle, Wilkin, 4 vols. In Bohn's Standard Library. Burguy's Glossaire. In tome iii. Burguy; 2me edition, Berlin and Paris, Burke, Select Works, ed.
Payne, vol. Tymms, Camden Soc. Robert Bell. In the Annotated Series of English Poets. Murray, Caedmon, ed. Published by the Society of Antiquaries, London, Castle off Loue. Wey- mouth.
Published for the Philological Society. Donald, 1. Chambers, R. London and Edinburgh, Chapman, George, Plays, ed. Shepherd, In this edition the lines are not numbered ; a far better edition is that by Hooper. Chaucer Society. London, E. Moxon, ; fii'st printed, This edition contains the first edition of the Court of Love ; also the Testament of Love, as cited in the present work. Skeat, Chaucer Society and E. A late poem, not by Chaucer; printed with Chaucer's Works. A Syllabic Dictionary of the Chinese Language.
Shanghai, Chinese-English Dictionary of the Amoy vernacular. By the Rev. Douglas, Cockayne, O. Coles, E. Complaynte of Scotlande. Re-edited by James A. Murray, E. Lexicon Linguae Copticse.
Turin, Lexicon Comu-Britannicum ; by R. Llan- dovery and London, A French and English Dictionary, composed by Mr. Randle Cotgrave ; with another in English and P'rench ; ed. London, pr. Hunt, in Pye-corner, Court of Love ; a late poem not by Chaucer first printed with Chaucer's Works, Shakespeare Society, Dampier's Voyages, an.
Daniel, S. Molbech, C, Dansk Ordbog; Kiobenhavn, Ferrall og Repps dansk-engelske Oidbog, gjennemseet og rettet af W. Mariboe; Kjobenhavn, When ' Dan. Second Edition, London, i Delfortrie ; see Flemish.
Destruction of Troy ; see Gest Hystoriale. Devic, M. Dictionary of the Bible, ed. Concise edition, by W. Aldis Wright, Diefenbach, L. Frankfurt, 1S Diez, F. Fourth Edition. Bonn, Digby Mysteries.
This is a map of the wheel-ruts of modern English. In surveys, at best a few pages. Indo-European Language Association http:dnghu.