His "Axis" with Germany was confirmed when he made another treaty with Germany in May Mussolini described the relationship with Germany as a "Pact of Steel", something he had earlier referred to as a "Pact of Blood".
Clearly the subordinate partner, Mussolini followed the Nazis and adopted racial policies that led to persecution of the Jews and the creation of apartheid in the Italian empire.
Before this, Jews were not specifically persecuted by Mussolini's government, and were permitted to be high members of the fascist party. Mussolini did not approve of all of Hitler's policies.
In fact, most historians believe Mussolini's Race Laws, enacted in and often left unenforced, were more a move to appease Hitler than anything else. Like many Italians, who were known for their cosmopolitan culture, tolerance and "easy-goingness", Mussolini seemed mostly indifferent to race, believing that anyone could be a good Italian if they did what they were told.
In fact, he once jokingly remarked that if Hitler's racial theories were to be taken seriously, then the " In April, , Mussolini privately suggested that the Vatican consider excommunicating Adolf Hitler.
To this day, it is unknown whether the Catholic Church considered excommunicating Hitler a plausible decision. In April , after a brief war, he annexed Albania. Mussolini decided to remain 'non-belligerent' in the larger conflict until he was quite certain which side would win.
On June 10 , Mussolini finally declared war on Britain and France. On October 28 , , Mussolini attacked Greece. In , following the Axis defeat in North Africa, setbacks on the Eastern Front and the Anglo-American landing in Sicily , most of Mussolini's colleagues including Count Galeazzo Ciano , the foreign minister and Mussolini's son-in-law turned against him at a meeting of the Fascist Grand Council on July 25 , Upon leaving the palace, Mussolini was swiftly arrested.
He was then sent to Gran Sasso , a mountain resort in central Italy Abruzzo , in complete isolation. Mussolini was replaced by the Maresciallo d'Italia Pietro Badoglio , who immediately declared in a famous speech " La guerra continua a fianco dell'alleato germanico " "The war continues at the side of our Germanic allies" , but was instead working to negotiate a surrender; 45 days later September 8 Badoglio would sign an armistice with Allied troops.
Badoglio and the King, fearing the German retaliation, fled from Rome, leaving the entire Italian Army without orders. Many units simply disbanded, some reached the Allied-controlled zone and surrendered, a few decided to start a partisan war against the Nazis, and a few rejected the switch of sides and remained allied with the Germans. He lived in Gargnano during this period, but was little more than a puppet under the protection of his liberators.
He also executed some of the fascist leaders who had abandoned him, including his son-in-law, Galeazzo Ciano. During this period he wrote his memoirs, and along with his autobiographical writings of , would be combined and published by Da Capo Press as My Rise and Fall.
On April 27 , , in the afternoon, near the village of Dongo Lake Como , just before the Allied armies reached Milan , as they headed for Chiavenna to board a plane to escape to Austria , Mussolini and his mistress Clara Petacci were caught by Italian communist partisans.
After several unsuccessful attempts to take them to Como they were brought to Mezzegra. They spent their last night in the house of the De Maria family. The day after, April 28 , Mussolini and his mistress were both shot, along with their fifteen-man train, mostly ministers and officials of the Italian Social Republic. The executions took place in the small village of Giulino di Mezzegra , and, at least according to the official version of events, were conducted by "Colonnello Valerio" Walter Audisio , the communist partisan commander after being given the order to kill Mussolini, by the National Liberation Committee.
Lonati's version has never been confirmed, but neither has it been debunked; a polygraph test on Lonati proved inconclusive. On April 29 the bodies of Mussolini and his mistress were found hung upside down on meat hooks in Piazzale Loreto Milan , along with those of other fascists, to show the population the dictator was dead.
This was both to discourage any fascists to continue the fight and an act of revenge for the hanging of many partisans in the same place by Axis authorities. The corpse of the deposed leader became subject to ridicule and abuse by many who felt oppressed by the former dictator's policies. Mussolini's body was eventually taken down and later buried in an unmarked grave in a Milan cemetery until the s, when his body was moved back to Predappio.
It was stolen briefly in the late s by neo-fascists , then again returned to Predappio. Here he was buried in a crypt the only posthumous honor granted to Mussolini; his tomb is flanked by marble fasces and a large idealized marble bust of himself sits above the tomb. A third son, Bruno, had been killed in an air accident while flying a P bomber on a test mission, on 7 August The fascist ideology Mussolini espoused in his lifetime is still popular in some quarters in modern-day Italy.
Mussolini was a major character in Inferno by Larry Niven and Jerry Pournelle , where he acted as guide to the protagonist during his journey through Hell.
The last few days of Mussolini's life have been depicted in Carlo Lizzani 's movie Mussolini: Ultimo atto Mussolini: The last act , On a popular animation website Newgrounds , a video included Mussolini as a villain in a flash animation entitled Ultimate Showdown which gained a massive cult following in late Your continued donations keep Wikipedia running!
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Jump to: navigation , search. For other uses, see Mussolini disambiguation. Prime Minister of Italy. Head of the Italian Social Republic. Benito Mussolini was named after Benito Juarez , a Mexican opponent of the political power of the Roman Catholic Church, by his anticlerical a person who opposes the political interference of the Roman Catholic Church in secular affairs father. At first Mussolini was a socialist , but when he wanted Italy to join the First World War he was thrown out of the socialist party.
In , he took power by having a large group of men, " Black Shirts ," march on Rome and threaten to take over the government. In the following five years, he gained power, and in created the OVRA , his personal secret police force. Only the King and his own Fascist party could challenge his power. Mussolini's form of Fascism, "Italian Fascism"- unlike Nazism , the racist ideology that Adolf Hitler followed- was different and less destructive than Hitler's.
Although a believer in the superiority of the Italian nation and national unity, Mussolini, unlike Hitler, is quoted "Race? He had become one of Italy's most prominent socialists.
In September , Mussolini participated in a riot, led by socialists, against the Italian war in Libya. He bitterly denounced Italy's "imperialist war", an action that earned him a five-month jail term. He was rewarded the editorship of the Socialist Party newspaper Avanti! Under his leadership, its circulation soon rose from 20, to , In , he published Giovanni Hus, il veridico Jan Hus, true prophet , an historical and political biography about the life and mission of the Czech ecclesiastic reformer Jan Hus and his militant followers, the Hussites.
During this socialist period of his life, Mussolini sometimes used the pen name "Vero Eretico" "sincere heretic". Mussolini rejected egalitarianism , a core doctrine of socialism.
A number of socialist parties initially supported World War I at the time it began in August One of the most prominent and popular Italian nationalist supporters of the war was Gabriele d'Annunzio who promoted Italian irredentism and helped sway the Italian public to support intervention in the war.
Mussolini initially held official support for the party's decision and, in an August article, Mussolini wrote "Down with the War. We remain neutral. He was influenced by anti-Austrian Italian nationalist sentiments, believing that the war offered Italians in Austria-Hungary the chance to liberate themselves from rule of the Habsburgs. He eventually decided to declare support for the war by appealing to the need for socialists to overthrow the Hohenzollern and Habsburg monarchies in Germany and Austria-Hungary who he said had consistently repressed socialism.
Mussolini further justified his position by denouncing the Central Powers for being reactionary powers; for pursuing imperialist designs against Belgium and Serbia as well as historically against Denmark, France, and against Italians, since hundreds of thousands of Italians were under Habsburg rule.
He argued that the fall of Hohenzollern and Habsburg monarchies and the repression of "reactionary" Turkey would create conditions beneficial for the working class. While he was supportive of the Entente powers, Mussolini responded to the conservative nature of Tsarist Russia by stating that the mobilization required for the war would undermine Russia's reactionary authoritarianism and the war would bring Russia to social revolution.
He said that for Italy the war would complete the process of Risorgimento by uniting the Italians in Austria-Hungary into Italy and by allowing the common people of Italy to be participating members of the Italian nation in what would be Italy's first national war. Thus he claimed that the vast social changes that the war could offer meant that it should be supported as a revolutionary war. As Mussolini's support for the intervention solidified, he came into conflict with socialists who opposed the war.
He attacked the opponents of the war and claimed that those proletarians who supported pacifism were out of step with the proletarians who had joined the rising interventionist vanguard that was preparing Italy for a revolutionary war. He began to criticize the Italian Socialist Party and socialism itself for having failed to recognize the national problems that had led to the outbreak of the war. Gasti, that describe his background and his position on the First World War that resulted in his ousting from the Italian Socialist Party.
The Inspector General wrote:. Professor Benito Mussolini, In October , finding himself in opposition to the directorate of the Italian Socialist party because he advocated a kind of active neutrality on the part of Italy in the War of the Nations against the party's tendency of absolute neutrality, he withdrew on the twentieth of that month from the directorate of Avanti!
Then on the fifteenth of November , thereafter, he initiated publication of the newspaper Il Popolo d'Italia , in which he supported—in sharp contrast to Avanti! For this reason he was accused of moral and political unworthiness and the party thereupon decided to expel him Thereafter he He was the ideal editor of Avanti!
In that line of work he was greatly esteemed and beloved. Some of his former comrades and admirers still confess that there was no one who understood better how to interpret the spirit of the proletariat and there was no one who did not observe his apostasy with sorrow.
This came about not for reasons of self-interest or money. He was a sincere and passionate advocate, first of vigilant and armed neutrality, and later of war; and he did not believe that he was compromising with his personal and political honesty by making use of every means—no matter where they came from or wherever he might obtain them—to pay for his newspaper, his program and his line of action.
This was his initial line. It is difficult to say to what extent his socialist convictions which he never either openly or privately abjure may have been sacrificed in the course of the indispensable financial deals which were necessary for the continuation of the struggle in which he was engaged But assuming these modifications did take place After being ousted by the Italian Socialist Party for his support of Italian intervention, Mussolini made a radical transformation, ending his support for class conflict and joining in support of revolutionary nationalism transcending class lines.
A major source of this funding from France is believed to have been from French socialists who sent support to dissident socialists who wanted Italian intervention on France's side. On 5 December , Mussolini denounced orthodox socialism for failing to recognize that the war had made national identity and loyalty more significant than class distinction. The nation has not disappeared. We used to believe that the concept was totally without substance.
Instead we see the nation arise as a palpitating reality before us! Class cannot destroy the nation. Class reveals itself as a collection of interests—but the nation is a history of sentiments, traditions, language, culture, and race.
Class can become an integral part of the nation, but the one cannot eclipse the other. In such circumstances the class movement finds itself impaired by an inauspicious historic climate. Mussolini continued to promote the need of a revolutionary vanguard elite to lead society.
He no longer advocated a proletarian vanguard, but instead a vanguard led by dynamic and revolutionary people of any social class. As for the Italian Socialist Party and its support of orthodox socialism, he claimed that his failure as a member of the party to revitalize and transform it to recognize the contemporary reality revealed the hopelessness of orthodox socialism as outdated and a failure.
These basic political views and principles formed the basis of Mussolini's newly formed political movement, the Fasci Rivoluzionari d'Azione Internazionalista in , who called themselves Fascisti Fascists. The opposition and attacks by the anti-interventionist revolutionary socialists against the Fascists and other interventionists were so violent that even democratic socialists who opposed the war such as Anna Kuliscioff said that the Italian Socialist Party had gone too far in a campaign of silencing the freedom of speech of supporters of the war.
These early hostilities between the Fascists and the revolutionary socialists shaped Mussolini's conception of the nature of Fascism in its support of political violence. Mussolini became an ally with the irredentist politician and journalist Cesare Battisti.
He was turned down because of his radical Socialism and told to wait for his reserve call up. He was called up on 31 August and reported for duty with his old unit, the Bersaglieri. After a two-week refresher course he was sent to Isonzo front where he took part in the Second Battle of the Isonzo, September His unit also took part in the Third Battle of the Isonzo, October He was promoted to the rank of corporal "for merit in war".
The promotion was recommended because of his exemplary conduct and fighting quality, his mental calmness and lack of concern for discomfort, his zeal and regularity in carrying out his assignments, where he was always first in every task involving labor and fortitude. Mussolini would ultimately be wounded in action in February , and was injured severely enough that he had to be evacuated from the front.
Mussolini's military experience is told in his work Diario di guerra. Overall, he totaled about nine months of active, front-line trench warfare.
During this time, he contracted paratyphoid fever. He was left with at least 40 shards of metal in his body. He wrote there positive articles about Czechoslovak Legions in Italy. In , he had a son with Ida Dalser , a woman born in Sopramonte, a village near Trento. By the time he returned from service in the Allied forces of World War I, very little remained of Mussolini the socialist.
Indeed, he was now convinced that socialism as a doctrine had largely been a failure. This help was authorized by Sir Samuel Hoare. The ideological basis for fascism came from a number of sources. Mussolini utilized works of Plato , Georges Sorel , Nietzsche , and the economic ideas of Vilfredo Pareto , to develop fascism. Mussolini admired Plato's The Republic , which he often read for inspiration.
The idea behind Mussolini's foreign policy was that of spazio vitale vital space , a concept in Fascism that was analogous to Lebensraum in German National Socialism. The right to colonize the neighboring Slovene ethnic areas and the Mediterranean, being inhabited by what were alleged to be less developed peoples, was justified on the grounds that Italy was allegedly suffering from overpopulation.
Borrowing the idea first developed by Enrico Corradini before of the natural conflict between " plutocratic " nations like Britain and "proletarian" nations like Italy, Mussolini claimed that Italy's principal problem was that "plutocratic" countries like Britain were blocking Italy from achieving the necessary spazio vitale that would let the Italian economy grow. Though biological racism was less prominent in Fascism than in National Socialism , right from the start the spazio vitale concept had a strong racist undercurrent.
Mussolini asserted there was a "natural law" for stronger peoples to subject and dominate "inferior" peoples such as the "barbaric" Slavic peoples of Yugoslavia. He stated in a September speech:. When dealing with such a race as Slavic—inferior and barbarian—we must not pursue the carrot, but the stick policy We should not be afraid of new victims I would say we can easily sacrifice , barbaric Slavs for 50, Italians While Italy occupied former Austro-Hungarian areas between years and , five hundred "Slav" societies for example Sokol and slightly smaller number of libraries "reading rooms" had been forbidden, specifically so later with the Law on Associations , the Law on Public Demonstrations and the Law on Public Order —the closure of the classical lyceum in Pazin, of the high school in Voloska , and the five hundred Slovene and Croatian primary schools followed.
In the same way, Mussolini argued that Italy was right to follow an imperialist policy in Africa because he saw all black people as "inferior" to whites. Mussolini believed that the United States was doomed as the American blacks had a higher birthrate than whites, making it inevitable that the blacks would take over the United States to drag it down to their level.
In Mussolini's thinking, demography was destiny; nations with rising populations were nations destined to conquer; and nations with falling populations were decaying powers that deserved to die.
Hence, the importance of natalism to Mussolini, since only by increasing the birth rate could Italy ensure that its future as a great power that would win its spazio vitale would be assured. By Mussolini's reckoning, the Italian population had to reach 60 million to enable Italy to fight a major war—hence his relentless demands for Italian women to have more children in order to reach that number.
Mussolini and the fascists managed to be simultaneously revolutionary and traditionalist ;   because this was vastly different from anything else in the political climate of the time, it is sometimes described [ by whom? The blackshirts clashed with communists, socialists, and anarchists at parades and demonstrations; all of these factions were also involved in clashes against each other.
The Italian government rarely interfered with the blackshirts' actions, owing in part to a looming threat and widespread fear of a communist revolution. The Fascisti grew rapidly; within two years they transformed themselves into the National Fascist Party at a congress in Rome. In , Mussolini won election to the Chamber of Deputies for the first time. In the night between 27 and 28 October , about 30, Fascist blackshirts gathered in Rome to demand the resignation of liberal Prime Minister Luigi Facta and the appointment of a new Fascist government.
On the morning of 28 October, King Victor Emmanuel III , who according to the Albertine Statute held the supreme military power, refused the government request to declare martial law , which led to Facta's resignation.
The King then handed over power to Mussolini who stayed in his headquarters in Milan during the talks by asking him to form a new government. The King's controversial decision has been explained by historians as a combination of delusions and fears; Mussolini enjoyed wide support in the military and among the industrial and agrarian elites, while the King and the conservative establishment were afraid of a possible civil war and ultimately thought they could use Mussolini to restore law and order in the country, but failed to foresee the danger of a totalitarian evolution.
As Prime Minister, the first years of Mussolini's rule were characterized by a right-wing coalition government composed of Fascists, nationalists, liberals, and two Catholic clerics from the Popular Party.
The Fascists made up a small minority in his original governments. Mussolini's domestic goal was the eventual establishment of a totalitarian state with himself as supreme leader Il Duce , a message that was articulated by the Fascist newspaper Il Popolo , which was now edited by Mussolini's brother, Arnaldo. To that end, Mussolini obtained from the legislature dictatorial powers for one year legal under the Italian constitution of the time. He favored the complete restoration of state authority, with the integration of the Fasci di Combattimento into the armed forces the foundation in January of the Milizia Volontaria per la Sicurezza Nazionale and the progressive identification of the party with the state.
In political and social economy, he passed legislation that favored the wealthy industrial and agrarian classes privatizations, liberalizations of rent laws and dismantlement of the unions. In , Mussolini sent Italian forces to invade Corfu during the Corfu incident. In the end, the League of Nations proved powerless, and Greece was forced to comply with Italian demands.
In June , the government passed the Acerbo Law , which transformed Italy into a single national constituency. The assassination of the socialist deputy Giacomo Matteotti , who had requested that the elections be annulled because of the irregularities,  provoked a momentary crisis in the Mussolini government.
Mussolini ordered a cover-up, but witnesses saw the car that transported Matteotti's body parked outside Matteotti's residence, which linked Amerigo Dumini to the murder. Mussolini later confessed that a few resolute men could have altered public opinion and started a coup that would have swept fascism away.
Dumini was imprisoned for two years. On his release, Dumini allegedly told other people that Mussolini was responsible, for which he served further prison time. The opposition parties responded weakly or were generally unresponsive. Many of the socialists, liberals, and moderates boycotted Parliament in the Aventine Secession , hoping to force Victor Emmanuel to dismiss Mussolini.
On 31 December , MVSN consuls met with Mussolini and gave him an ultimatum: crush the opposition or they would do so without him. Fearing a revolt by his own militants, Mussolini decided to drop all pretense of democracy. German-American historian Konrad Jarausch has argued that Mussolini was responsible for an integrated suite of political innovations that made fascism a powerful force in Europe.
First, he went beyond the vague promise of future national renewal, and proved the movement could actually seize power and operate a comprehensive government in a major country along fascist lines.
Second, the movement claimed to represent the entire national community, not a fragment such as the working class or the aristocracy. He made a significant effort to include the previously alienated Catholic element.
He defined public roles for the main sectors of the business community rather than allowing it to operate backstage. Third, he developed a cult of one-man leadership that focused media attention and national debate on his own personality.
As a former journalist, Mussolini proved highly adept at exploiting all forms of mass media, including such new forms as motion pictures and radio. Fourth, he created a mass membership party, with free programs for young men, young women, and various other groups who could therefore be more readily mobilized and monitored.
He shut down all alternative political formations and parties but this step was not an innovation by any means. Like all dictators he made liberal use of the threat of extrajudicial violence, as well as actual violence by his Blackshirts, to frighten his opposition. Between and , Mussolini progressively dismantled virtually all constitutional and conventional restraints on his power and built a police state. A law passed on 24 December —Christmas Eve for the largely Roman Catholic country—changed Mussolini's formal title from "President of the Council of Ministers" to "Head of the Government", although he was still called "Prime Minister" by most non-Italian news sources.
He was no longer responsible to Parliament and could be removed only by the King. While the Italian constitution stated that ministers were responsible only to the sovereign, in practice it had become all but impossible to govern against the express will of Parliament. The Christmas Eve law ended this practice, and also made Mussolini the only person competent to determine the body's agenda. This law transformed Mussolini's government into a de facto legal dictatorship.
On 7 April , Mussolini survived a first assassination attempt by Violet Gibson , an Irish woman and daughter of Lord Ashbourne , who was deported after her arrest. Zamboni was lynched on the spot. All other parties were outlawed following Zamboni's assassination attempt in , though in practice Italy had been a one-party state since with either his January speech to the Chamber or the passage of the Christmas Eve law, depending on the source.
In the same year, an electoral law abolished parliamentary elections. Instead, the Grand Council of Fascism selected a single list of candidates to be approved by plebiscite. The Grand Council had been created five years earlier as a party body but was "constitutionalized" and became the highest constitutional authority in the state.
On paper, the Grand Council had the power to recommend Mussolini's removal from office, and was thus theoretically the only check on his power. However, only Mussolini could summon the Grand Council and determine its agenda.
To gain control of the South, especially Sicily , he appointed Cesare Mori as a Prefect of the city of Palermo, with the charge of eradicating the Mafia at any price. In the telegram, Mussolini wrote to Mori:. Your Excellency has carte blanche; the authority of the State must absolutely, I repeat absolutely, be re-established in Sicily. If the laws still in force hinder you, this will be no problem, as we will draw up new laws.
Mori did not hesitate to lay siege to towns, using torture, and holding women and children as hostages to oblige suspects to give themselves up. These harsh methods earned him the nickname of "Iron Prefect". In , Mori's inquiries brought evidence of collusion between the Mafia and the Fascist establishment, and he was dismissed for length of service in , at which time the number of murders in Palermo Province had decreased from to Mussolini nominated Mori as a senator, and fascist propaganda claimed that the Mafia had been defeated.
In , the Italian state had brought in a series of liberal reforms in Libya that allowed education in Arabic and Berber and allowed for the possibility that the Libyans might become Italian citizens. As for overall strategy, it is necessary to create a significant and clear separation between the controlled population and the rebel formations. I do not hide the significance and seriousness of this measure, which might be the ruin of the subdued population This quote spread rapidly in the United States after appearing in a column by Molly Ivins 24 November It is repeated often and sometimes attributed to the "Fascism" entry in the Enciclopedia Italiana.
However hard copies of the Enciclopedia Italiana exist in numerous libraries and the alleged quote is not in the text, nor is there anything that would support the alleged quote.
A vaguely similar statement does appear in Doctrine of Fascism. He organised them into armed squads known as Black Shirts, who terrorised their political opponents. In , the Fascist Party was invited to join the coalition government. By October , Italy seemed to be slipping into political chaos.
The Black Shirts marched on Rome and Mussolini presented himself as the only man capable of restoring order. King Victor Emmanuel invited Mussolini to form a government. Mussolini gradually dismantled the institutions of democratic government and in made himself dictator, taking the title 'Il Duce'.Mussolini was originally a socialist politician and a journalist at the Avanti! InMussolini founded a new journal, Il Popolo d'Italiaand served in the Royal Italian Army wikipedi the war until he was wounded and discharged in Mussolini denounced the PSI, his views now centering on Italian nationalism instead of socialism, and later founded the fascist movement which benito mussolini wikipedia the free encyclopedia to oppose egalitarianism  and class conflictinstead nenito " revolutionary nationalism " transcending class lines. After removing all political opposition through his secret police and outlawing labor strikes,  Mussolini and his followers consolidated their power through a series of laws that transformed the nation into a one-party dictatorship. Within five years, Mussolini had established dictatorial benito mussolini wikipedia the free encyclopedia by both legal and illegal means and aspired to create a totalitarian state. InMussolini signed the Lateran Treaty with the Vatican, ending decades of struggle between the Italian state and the Papacy, and recognized the independence of Vatican City. Mussolini's foreign policy aimed to expand the sphere of influence of Italian fascism. Inhe began the " Pacification of Libya " and ordered the bombing of Corfu in retaliation for the murder of an Italian general. InItalian forces occupied Albania. Between andMussolini ordered the successful Italian wiikipedia intervention in Spain in favor of Francisco Franco during the Spanish civil war. On 10 June —with the Fall of France imminent—Italy officially entered benito mussolini wikipedia the free encyclopedia war and eventually occupied parts of south-east FranceCorsicaand Tunisia. Mussolini planned to concentrate Italian forces on a major offensive against the British Empire in Africa benito mussolini wikipedia the free encyclopedia the Middle East, known as the "parallel war", while expecting the collapse of the UK in the European theatre. However, the British government refused to accept proposals for a peace that would involve accepting Axis victories in Europe; plans for an invasion of the UK did not proceed and benito mussolini wikipedia the free encyclopedia final fantasy vii pc download free full continued. The Balkan campaign continued until June wiikpedia, and led to the Axis occupation of Greece and Yugoslavia. Benito mussolini wikipedia the free encyclopedia a consequence, early on 25 July, the Grand Council of Fascism passed a motion of no confidence mussolino Mussolini; later that day the King dismissed him as head of government and had him placed in custody, appointing Pietro Badoglio to succeed him as Prime Minister. In late Aprilin the wake benito mussolini wikipedia the free encyclopedia near total defeat, Mussolini and his mistress Clara Petacci attempted to flee to Switzerland,  but both were captured by Italian communist partisans and summarily benito mussolini wikipedia the free encyclopedia by firing squad on 28 April near Lake Como. The bodies of Mussolini and benito mussolini wikipedia the free encyclopedia mistress were then taken to Milanwhere they were hung upside down at a service station to publicly confirm their demise. Benito Mussolini was named after Benito Juarez, a Mexican opponent of the political power of the Roman Catholic Church, by his anticlerical (a person who. Benito Mussolini. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Jump to: navigation, search. "Mussolini" redirects here. For.  "Benito Mussolini - Wikipedia." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia, Wikimedia Foundation, Inc, , elmarkinninger.biz Accessed. Benito Mussolini. fascist leader of Italy Language · Watch · Edit · Fascism conceives of the State as an absolute, in comparison with which all. Benito Mussolini, February © Mussolini was the founder of Fascism and leader of Italy from to He allied Italy with Nazi Germany and Japan in. In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved , September 2, of Benito Mussolini's fascist regime on July 25, Source: “Arturo Riccardi” (July 8. Jun 8, - Benito Mussolini - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. celba wikipedia, yoshiyuki junnosuke wikipedia the free encyclopedia, benito mussolini wikipedia, borg wikipedia, wikipedia ode to joy, wikipedia steel eam. 18/nov/ - Benito Mussolini - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Hidden category: Politics stubs. Leon Surette. He did, however, ask Grandi to consider the possibility that this motion would spell the end of Fascism. Hitler's Raid to Save Mussolini. Yale University Press, Fascist Italy. World finance is in the hands of the Jews. Italo Balbo. It reads "In addition to my Nat Geo TV.