Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. Howatt, A. A History of English Language Teaching. Oxford University Press, Oxford. Kumaravadivelu, B. Liu, D. Pennycook, A. The concept of method, interested knowledge, and the politics of language teaching.
Richards, J. Approaches and Methods in Language Teaching. Ur, P. A Course in Language Teaching. Wallace, M. ISBN This book reports a major research project in which verb phrases in several corpora of English were investigated in detail.
Harry Potter. Popular Features. Home Learning. Approaches and Methods in Language Teaching. Description An extensively revised and updated edition of this popular and accessible text.
Approaches and Methods in Language Teaching Third edition is an extensive revision of this highly successful book. As in previous editions, both major and alternative approaches and methods are surveyed, with the section on current communicative approaches updated to include new material on CLIL, text and genre-based teaching.
The book seeks not only to clarify the assumptions behind these approaches, and their similarities and differences, but also to help teachers explore their own beliefs and practices in language teaching. Further new material deals with other directions in language teaching, such as outcomes-based initiatives, to make this edition fully up-to-date. Other books in this series. Add to basket. Testing for Language Teachers Arthur Hughes. Psychology for Language Teachers Marion Williams.
English for Academic Purposes R. Rules, Patterns and Words Dave Willis. Developing Reading Skills Frangoise Grellet. Vocabulary Norbert Schmitt. Contents, Preface vii, Part I Major language trends in twentieth century language. Cambridge Books Online, http ebooks cambridge org. Cambridge University Press, Preface, This is a revised and reorganized version of the first edition originally.
Part I deals with major trends in twentieth century language teaching. The chapters in this section are substantially the same as those in the first. Part II deals with alternative approaches and methods This section. International Review of Applied Linguistics 8: Breen, M. The essentials of a communicative curricu- lum in language teaching. Applied Linguistics 1 2 : The Elements of the Language Curriculum. Boston: Heinle 6C Heinle. Devine, and D. Interactive Approaches to Second Language Reading.
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Curran, C. New York: Grune and Stratton. Counseling-Learning in Second Languages.
Apple River, New York: Oxford University Press. Fries, C. Foundations for English Teaching. Tokyo: Kenkyusha. Y Gattegno, C. New York: Educational Solutions. Gattegno, C. Appropriate Methodology. Cambridge: Cambridge University press.
Johnson, F. Individualizing in the Language Class- room. Cambridge, Mass. Communicative Syllabus Design and Methodology. Oxford- Pergamon.
Oxford: Pergamon. Long, M. Three approaches to task-based syllabus design. Prabhu, N. Procedural syllabuses. Singapore: Regional Language Centre. There is no best method - why? Beyond methods.
Richards, The Language Teaching Matrix. Rivers W. Interactive Language Teaching. Cambridge: Cam- bridge University Press. Rodgers T. After methods, what? Aninan ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Stevick, E. Teaching Languages: A Way and Ways. Terrell, T. A natural approach to the acquisition and learning of a language. Modern Language Journal 61 7 : Warschauer, M. Kern eds. Yalden, J 1 Principles of Course Design for Language Teaching.
Even though neither term is commonly used today; the impact of the Ora! One of the most successful ESL courses published, Streamline English Hartley and Viney , reflected the classic princi- ples of Situational Language Teaching, as did many other series that have been widely used e.
It is important, therefore, to understand the principles and practices of the Oral Approach and Situational Lan- guage Teaching. Beginning at this time, a number of outstanding applied linguists developed the basis for a principled ap- proach to methodology, in language teaching. Hornby, two of the most promi- nent figures in British twentieth-century language teaching. Both were familiar with the work of such linguists as Otto Jespersen and Daniel Jones, as well as with the Direct Method.
They attempted to develop a more scientific foundation for an oral approach to teaching English than - was evidenced in the Direct Method. The result was a systematic study of. In the s and s, several large-scale in vesSpKs of foreign language vocabulary were undertaken.
The impetus for this research came from Wo quarters. Vocabulary W!! Frequency counts showed that a core of two thou- san QL. Harold Palmer, Michael West, and other specialists produced a guide to the English vocabulary needed for teaching English as a foreign language, The Interim Report on Vocabulary Selection Faucett, West, Palmer, and Thorndike 1 93 6 , based on frequency as well as other criteria.
This was later revised by West and published in as A General Service List of English Words, which became a standard reference in developing teach- ing materials.
His view jof grammar was very different from the abstracxmgdeX. Dictionary of Current English. This was not to be confused with the Direct Method, which, although it used oral f procedures, lacked a systematic basis in applied linguistic theory and practice. An oral approach should not be confused with the obsolete Direct Method, which meant only that the learner was bewildered by a flow of ungraded speech, suffering all the difficulties he would have encountered in picking up the language in its normal environment and losing most of the compensating benefits of better contextualization in those circumstances.
Pattison 4 The Oral Approach was the accepted British approach to English lan- guage teaching by the s. It is described in the standard methodology One of the most active proponents of the Ora Approach in the s was the Australian George Pittman.
These were published for worldwide use in as the series Situational English. Materials by Alexander and other leading British textbook writers also reflected the principles of Situational Language Teaching as they had evolved over a year period.
The main characteristics of the approach were as follows: 1. Language teaching begins with the spoken language. Material is taught orally before it is presented in written form. The target language is the language of the classroom. Vocabulary selection procedures are followed to ensure that absen- tia!
Reading and writing are introduced once a sufficient lexical and gram- matical basis is established. It was the third principle that became a key fe atur e of th e approach in the s, and it was then that the term situational was used increasingly in referring to the Oral Approach. Hornby himself used the term the Situa- tional Approach in the title of an influential series of articles published in English Language Teaching in How can Situational Language Teaching be charac- terized at the levels of approach, design, and procedure?
Palmer, Hornby, and other British appliedlinguists had prepared' pedagogical descriptions of the basic grammatical structures of English, and these were to be followed in developing methodology. In terms of language theory, there was little to distinguish such a view from that proposed by American linguists, such as Charles Fries.
The theory that knowledge of structures must be linked to situations in which they could be used gave Situational Language Teaching one of its distinctive features. This may have reflected the functional trend in Brit- ish linguistics since the s. Many British linguists had emphasized the close relationship between the structure of language and the context and situations in which language is used.
British linguists, such as J. Firth and M. Thus, in contrast to American structuralist views on language see Chapter 4 , language was viewed as purposeful activity related to goals and situations in the real world. Theory of learning The theory of learning underlying Situational Language Teaching is a type of behaviorist habit-learning theory.
It addresses primarily thejjro- 40 The Oral Approach and Situational Language Teaching cesses rath er th an the conditions of learning. Such speech habits can be cultivated by blind imitative drill. If we give the meaning of a new word, either by translation into the home language or by an equivalent in the same language, as soon as we introduce it, we weaken the impression which the word makes on the mind Billows Explanation is therefore discourage d, and the learner is expected to deduce the meaning of a paxticuTaF structure or vocabulary item from the situation in which it is presented.
The learner is expected to apply the language learned in a classroom to situations outside the classroom. This is how child language learning is believed to take place, and the same processes are thought to occur in second and foreign language learning, according to practitioners of Situational Language Teaching. Design Objectives The objectives of the Situational Language Teaching method are to teach a practical command of the four basic skills of language, goals it shares with most methods of language teaching.
But the skills are approached through structure. Accuracy in both pronunciation and grammar is re- garded as crucial, and errors are to be avoided at all costs. Automatic control of basic structures and sentence patterns is fundamental to rea d- ing and writing skills, and this is achieved through speech work. Writing likewise derives from speech. Pittman A structural syllabus is a list of the basic structures and sentence patterns of English' arranged according to their order of presentation.
In Situational Language Teaching, structures, are always taught within sentences, and vocabulary is chosen according to how well it enables sentence patterns to be taught. That is. Those are. Yes it is. Is that. Vocabulary book, pencil, ruler, desk ' chair, picture, door, window, watch, 'box, pen, blackboard The syllabus was not therefore a situational syllabus in the sense that this term is sometimes used i.
Rather, situation refers to the manner of presenting and practicing sentence patterns, as we shall see later. Types of learning and teaching activities Situational Language Teaching employs a situational approach to pre- senting new sentence patterns and a drill-based manner of practicing them: our method will The situation will be controlled carefully to teach the new language material Pittman : - By situation Pittman means the use of concrete objects, pictures, and realia, which together with actions and gestures can be used to demons- trate the meanings of new language items: The form of new words and sentence patterns is demonstrated with examples and not through grammatical explanation or description.
The meaning of new words and sentence patterns is not conveyed through translation. It is made clear visually with objects, pictures, action and mime. Wherever possible model sentences are related and taken from a single situation.
Later, more active participation is' encourage!!. Teacher roles The teacher s function is threefold. Lessonsare hence teacher-directed, and the teacher sets the pace. During the practice phase of the lesson, students are given more of an opportunity to use the language in less controlled situations, but the 43 Major trends in language teaching teacher is ever on the lookout for grammatical and structural errors that can form the basis of subsequent lessons. The role of instructional materials Situational Language Teaching is dependent on both a textbook and visual, aids.
The textbook contains tightly organized lessons planned around different grammatical structures. Visual aids may be produced by the teacher or may be commercially produced; they consist of wall charts, flashcards, pictures, stick figures, and so on. The visual element toget er with a carefully graded grammatical syllabus is a crucial aspect of Situa- tional Language Teaching, hence the importance of the textbook.
Pittman gives an example of a typical lesson plan: The first part of the lesson will be stress and intonation practice. The main body of the lesson should then follow. This might consist of the teaching of a structure. If so, the lesson would then consist of four parts: 1. This is a watch. This is a pen.
Students: This is a pen. You can now begin taking objects out of your box, making sure they are as far as possible not new vocabulary items. Large objects may be placed in vis- ible places at the front of the classroom.
Smaller ones distributed to students. Davies et al. The sequence of activities they propose consists of the following: 1. In dividu al imitation in which the teacher asks several individual students to repeat the model he has given in order to check their pronunciation. Isolation, in which the teacher isolates sounds, words, or groups of words which cause trouble and goes through techniques with them before re- placing them in context.
Building up to a new model, in which the teacher gets students to ask and answer questions using patterns they already know in order to bring about the information necessary to introduce the new model. Elicitation, in which the teacher, using mime, prompt words, gestures, etc. Substitution drilling, in which the teacher uses cue words words, pictures, -numbers, names, etc.
Question-answer drilling, in which the teacher gets one student to ask a question and'arioth'er'to answer until most students in. Correction, in which the teacher indicates by shaking his head, repeating the error, etc. Where possible the teacher does not simply correct the mistake himself. He gets students to correct themselves so they will be en- couraged to listen to each other carefully.
SLT provided the methodology of major meth- odology texts throughoutHTe s and beyond e. In the mids, however, the view of language, language learning, and language teaching underlying Situational Language Teach- ing was called into question: We discuss this reaction and how it led to Communicative Language Teaching in Chapter But because the prin- ciples of Situational Language Teaching, with its strong emphasis on oral practice, grammar, and sentence patterns, conform to the intuitions of many language teachers and offer a practical methodology suited to countries where national EFI7ESL syllabuses continue to be gram- matically based it continues to be widely used, though not necessarily widely acknowledged.
Byrne, D. Situational English. London- Longman. Davies R J Roberts, and R. Situational Lesson Plans. Mexico City: Macmillan. Faucett L M. West H. E Palmer, and E. London: P. Oxford- Uxtord University Press. Frisby, A. English as a Foreign Language. Gauntlett, J. Teaching English as. London: Macmillan.
Gurrey, P. Teaching English as a Foreign Language. London': Longman. Halliday, M. McIntosh, and P. The Linguistic Sciences and Language Teaching. Hartley, B. Streamline English. Ox- ford: Oxford University Press. Hodgson, F. Learning Modem Languages. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul. Hornby, A. The situational approach in language teaching. A series of three articles in English Language Teaching. A Guide to Patterns and Usage in English. London: Oxford University Press. Gatenby, and H. Hubbard, P.
Jones, B. Thornton, and R. Jespersen, O. Essentials of English Grammar. London: Allen and Unwin. Mennon, T. The Teaching of English as a Foreign Language. Baroda, India: Acharya. Morris, I. O Neill, R. Kernel Lessons Plus. Palmer, H. The Scientific Study and Teachnig of Languages. Reprinred: London: Oxford University Press, Principles of Language Study.
New York: World Book Co. The Oral Method of Teaching Languages. Cambridge: Heffer. Specimens of English Construction Patterns. Tokyo: Depart- ment of Education. Grammar of English Words. The Teaching of Oral English. Pattison, B. English Teaching in the World Today. London: Evans. Modern methods of language teaching. English Language Teaching 19 1 : Pittman, G. Teaching Structural English. Richards, J. Ho, and K.
Learning how to teach in the RSA Cert. Freeman and J. Richards eds. Situational English for Newcomers to Australia. Sydney: Longman.
West, M. White, R. The ELT Curriculum. Oxford: Blackwell. Willis, J. Willis eds. Challenge and Change in Language Teach- ing. Oxford: Heinemann. Zandvoort, R. A Handbook of English Grammar. Groningen: Wolters. This emphasized teaching th e co mprehension of.
Teachers taught from books containing short reading passages in the foreign language,- preceded by lists of vocabulary. Rapidjilent reading was the goal, but in practice teachers often resorted to discussing the content of the passage in English.
Those involved in the teaching of English as a second language in the United States between the two world wars used either a modified Direct Method approach, ajreading-based approach, or a reading-oral approach Darian Unlike the ap- proach that was being developed by British applied linguists during the same period, there was little attempt to treat language content systemat- ically.
Sentence patterns and grammar were introduced at the whim of the textbook writer. There was no standardization of the vocabulary or grammar that was included.