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Cancel Save settings. Shimano, J. Trave, S. Woas, and Y. Heartfelt thanks to them and to our collective spouses and families for their unflagging support and encouragement during the decade-long period that went into the preparation of this volume.
Krantz Oregon State University D. If morphological and ecological diversity in an animal group can be considered a measure of its success, then the assemblage of invertebrates composing the arachnid subclass Acari would have to be among those accorded top honors.
Unlike other arachnids, the mites have evolved far beyond saprophagy and predation. Some feed on plants, bacteria, or fungi, while others have developed obligate symbiotic relationships with vertebrate and invertebrate animals. Thanks to their remarkable evolutionary plasticity and relatively small size, mites have succeeded in colonizing a range of terrestrial, marine, and aquatic habitats that far exceeds those occupied by any other arthropod group, including insects.
Mites may be found worldwide in virtually any locality capable of supporting life: from the windswept arctic tundra to the hot desert sands of the Sahara, from the icy depths of Pacific oceanic trenches to the hair follicles of our eyebrows. Mites abound in rivers, lakes, and streams and are a significant component of the arboreal fauna of tropical and temperate forests. They often occur in enormous numbers in the litter and humus layers that cover forest, grassland, and agricultural soils and may be found in the soil itself, often at depths of several meters.
Because they are so small, many mites are easily dispersed on air currents and consequently are a common component of aerial plankton. Their diminutive size also may allow some mites to hitchhike from place to place on larger animals such as insects, birds. Many mite species are beneficial to humans in that they prey on invertebrate pests of agricultural and ornamental crops, often reducing or obviating chemical control measures.
Others have been found to feed on noxious plants and have been used successfully in weed control programs. Nonpredaceous litter mites may be effective nutrient recyclers in forest floor ecosystems, comminuting organic litter to a size appropriate for use by other decomposers.
While many mites are beneficial, a number of species are serious pests of crops and of humans and animals, damaging their hosts through their feeding activity and through transmission of disease organisms see chapter 6. The diversity of habitats in which mites are encountered. Based on these characteristics, approximately 55, species of mites have thus far been recognized and described Walter and Proctor Estimates of the actual number of extant mite species vary from , to 1,,, although recent hypotheses that greatly increase estimates of the extant insect fauna Gaston ; Erwin suggest that the total number of mite species, many of which have established mono- or oligoxenous associations with insects, may be much greater than currently imagined.
Estimates of a million or more mite species seem excessive until one considers that new mite species are routinely encountered even in previously well-collected substrates WaIter and Proctor A new and unimagined assemblage of mites may be revealed in a handful oflitter taken from a tropical forest in Cameroon or a deciliter of interstitial water extracted from the tidal sands of the Irrawaddy Delta.
Recent exploration of exotic realms such as the phylloplane of Australian rain forests Walter , the amber deposits of the Paleozoic and Mesozoic eras Poinar , and the nests of termites in the southwestern desert of Turkmenistan Petrova-Nikitina ; Gordeeva, Niemi, and PetrovaNikitina have revealed mite faunas whose existence had previously been unsuspected. In short, our current concepts of acarine systematics appear to be based on little more than a fragmentary knowledge of the fauna.
Nevertheless, the great diversity of known acarine species has led to recognition of nearly 5, genera and 1, subgenera representing some families J. Hallan, pers. The recognition of mites as discrete entities occurred well before the science of acarology emerged as a discipline.
A reference to "tick fever" was found on an Egyptian papyrus scroll dated BC Zaher and Hanna , Homer mentioned the occurrence of ticks on Ulysses' dog in BC, and Aristotle described a mite parasite of locusts probably Eutrombidium in De Animalibus Historia Libri some years later.
Other early references to Acari appear in the writings of Hippocrates, Plutarch, Aristophanes, and Pliny,. Gorirossi-Bourdeau Appellations for mites in the early literature took a number of forms. Emmanuel noted that Aristotle used the Greek terms Kroton or Kynoraistis for ticks, and A-kari without head to describe non ixodoid mites.
Another possible derivation of the word Acari may have been from the Greek wordakares, which means short or small. During medieval times, mites were commonly referred to as lice, beesties, or little insects. As in Aristotle's time and until relatively recently , ticks were considered an entity separate from mites and were referred to as ticia Old English or zecken Middle High German.
Rediscovery of the term Akari, or Acari, appears to have occurred about , bui it was not until the early twentieth century that the term acarology began to appear regularly in the literature Krantz Linnaeus used the generic name Acarus in the first edition of the 5ystema Naturae, for which he later named the type species, A. The tenth edition of the 5ystema included fewer than 30 mite species, all of which were. During the years that followed, several schemes of higher classification were introduced by workers such as DeGeer , Latreille , Leach , Duges , c.
Koch , and others to accommodate an ever-growing number of newly recognized mite taxa. Michael a summarizes these and other pioneerworks. The emergence of acarology as a modern science during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries was centered primarily in Europe and North America with the historic contributions of Michael a , Kramer , Megnin , CaneStrini , Banks , Oudemans , Reuter , Jacot , Tragardh , Sig Thor , and Vitzthum Special mention should be made here of Antonio Berlese , an economic entomologist whose many contributions to acarine systematics and classification were instrumental in establish-.
The work of these few pioneers provided the basis for virtually all acarological research until after the end of World War II. The post-World War II awakening of acarology was triggered in part by the return to civilian life of many American, Japanese, Australian, and British medical corps personnel who wished to continue their wartime studies on mitetransmitted diseases such as scrub typhus and tick-borne hemorrhagic fever, as well as on the mites themselves.
Among those who participated in the postwar acarological renaissance was George W. Wharton's aspirations were shared by Dr. Edward W. Supplemented by the Guide to the Families of Mites by Baker and colleagues , the Introduction served as the standard acarological text worldwide for more than a decade. Its importance as a major factor in the emergence of modern acarology cannot be overemphasized.
Several general reference and classificatory works in acarology have been published since the appearance of the limoduction and the Guide Hughes ; Radford ; Evans, Sheals, and MacFarlane ; Sasa ; Hirschmann ; Krantz b, ; Flechtmann ; Doreste ; Woolley ; Van der Hammen ; Evans ; Alberti and Coons ; Coons and Alberti Walter and Proctor , , as have many important research papers and books dealing with particular taxonomic groups or with specific topics in mite biology, physiology, ecology, and systematics.
Many of these works will be cited in the chapters to follow. The content and bibliography presented in this work are current through Selected references have been included where considered essential or appropriate. Small size and lack of a substantial exoskeleton have limited the availability of fossil evidence relating to the origins of most terrestrial Arthropoda.
However, the information presently available suggests that arachnids first appeared on land in the late Silurian or early Devonian periods ca. This momentous event took place more or less on the heels of the remarkable period of arthropod evolution and diversification that occurred during the Cambrian period, approximately million years earlier Gould ; Walter and Proctor The Arachnida has traditionally been considered a monophyletic assemblage, with the Scorpionida representing its most primitive member group Kaestner However, scorpions possess an array of morphological characters not shared b" other arachnid lineages, nor is there any evidence in the fossil record suggesting that an intermediate scorpion-like arachnid ever existed.
In fact, it now appears that scorpions invaded the land as relatively large predators and found themselves in a well-established ecosystem alteady suPPOrting a variety of smaller arachnids, including the primordial Trigonotarbida Walter and Proctor! Fossil evidence suggests that terrestrial arachnids acquired air-breathing respiratory organs at least three times during the course of their ascent from the primitive marine habitat Onto land scorpions, trigonotarbids, and the unusual tracheate eurypterid Baltoe!
IJ:J'pterus , an observation that would seem to invalidate any argument in favor of the monophyletic origin of the Arachnida Bergstrom All of the early Devonian fossil mites are members of the superorder Acariformes chapters 8, , whose modern-day descendants feed primarily on fungi, algae, and organic detri-.
Their small size and their present-day predilection for subsurface edaphic habitats suggest that the early derivative acariform mites may have invaded land via the sand interstices and soil pores of the littoral zone.
In contrast to the Acariformes, the ancestors of the relatively large mites composing the superorder Parasitiformes chapters 8, probably made their terrestrial debut as predators in surface habitats of the littoral zone.
Unlike the Acariformes, the known fossil record for the Parasitiformes does not commence until the late Cretaceous Witalinski ; Poinar and Brown However, based on biological, biogeographical, and phylogenetic evidence, Kim estimated that the parasitiform Trigynaspida may have originated as early as the upper Triassic ca. While the known fossil record for the Opilioacarida is limited to a recent find in Baltic amber Dunlop, Wunderlich, and Poinar , Dunlop earlier raised the possibility that the fossil Phalangiotarbida of the Carboniferous may in fact be a subgroup of the Opilioacarida.
Fossil evidence indicates that a major adaptive breakthrough may have occurred among the Acari during the late Mesozoic and early Cenozoic eras mya , well after the major extinction events of the Permo-Triassic and after the appearance of most of the modern acarine lineages. Acarine radiation during the great speciation explosion of that time reflected the development of a level of morphological and ecological diversity that made possible their exploitation of many co-evolving plants and animals evolutionary s 'nergism ofLindquist a.
This was a period of great diversification of angiosperm plants and of the Insecta, a group with which the Acari have close present-day ecological ties. A reciprocal radiation similar to that observed between mites and insects may have been occurring between parasitic mites and their.
Based on fossil evidente, early derivative members of the acarine suborder Oribatida chapter 15 were already engaged in consuming vascular plant tissues as early as the late Carboniferous period Labandeira, Phillips, and Norton , some million years before the Mesozoic-Cenozoic expansion.
The morphological and behavioral dichotomy between acariform and nonacariform mites offers reason enough to question whether there was a single evolutionary event in some ancient preacarine arachnid lineage that led to the appearance of the Acari as a monophyletic group, or whether tWOor more mitelike lineages evolved independently and came to resemble one another through convergence. Speculation regarding the ancestry of the Acari has been lively and prolonged, with proponents of monophyly and diphyly presenting a range of morphological, developmental, and behavioral arguments to support their respective positions Zachvatkin ; Weygoldt and Paulus a, b; Lindquist ; Van der Hammen ; Walter and Proctor The comparative morphological evidence for diphyly presented by Zachvatkin and Van der Hammen has proven controversial Dunlop and Alberti , which has led to broader support in recent years for the less ambiguous concept of monophyly in the Acari.
In this connection, Lindquist established transformation series for Based primarily on the joint possession of a movable gnathosoma and of a hexapod larva and three octopod nymphal instars see chapters 3 and 5 , Lindquist further concluded that the monophyletic Acari and the order Ricinulei Kaestner are sister groups. While a strong case can be made for monophyly in the Acari, spermatological evidence recently compiled by Alberti on the Chelicerata does not necessarily support a common origin for acariform and nonacariform mite lineages.
The limited arachnid fossil record, coupled with continued conjecture regarding the utility of morphological and behavioral characters invoked in evolutionary studies of arachnid taxa, leaves room for continued speculation regarding the ancestral origins of the Acari.
Dunlop and Alberti have provided an in-depth review of the morphological, developmental, and molecular evidence that supportS or refutes monophyly in the Acari. Their paper is recommended as a logical starting point for further exploration into acarine origins and evolutionary history.
Mites are members of the Arthropoda, a vast assemblage of terrestrial and marine invertebrates that are considered to compose a monophyletic taxon Weygoldt and that share the characteristics of jointed legs and a chitinous exoskeleton. Mites also possess the arthropodan features of an open circulatory system, ventral nerve cord, alimentary canal, striated muscles, and in many cases Malpighian tubules that collect and sequester excretory products for eventual elimination.
Among the Arthropoda are two groups that, unlike other arthropods, lack antennae and mandibles. These are the Pantopoda sea spiders and the large and diverse group Chelicerata, which, based on recent molecular studies, is considered to be the sister taxon of a clade comprising the Crustacea and the Insecta Telford and Thomas a.
The largest chelicerate group is the class Arachnida, a primarily terrestrial assemblage that includes such diverse forms as scorpions, spiders, vinegaroons, whipscorpions, and the mostly long-legged harvestmen Opiliones so common to both temperate and tropical ecosystems Kaestner Of the 10 extant divisions of Arachnida recognized by Weygoldt and Paulus a, b. Some Opiliones and Araneae have been observed to scavenge on dead insects and on organic matter Kaestner ; Foelix , and some.
Arachnids display a range of morphological and behavioral adaptations well suited to their lifestyles, but many of these adaptations reflect patterns that are essentially fixed at the ordinal or subordinallevel. For example, the mouthparts of spiders always are adapted for piercing and sucking although they may use a variety of behavioral strategies for trapping their prey Foelix Unlike that of other arachnids, the remarkable range of lifestyles seen in the Acari is more than matched by their diverse form and behavior.
Differentiating the Acari from Other Arachnids While phylogenetic relationships within the Arachnida and between arachnid assemblages is not always clear, morphological differentiation of the two presently recognized mite superorders from other terrestrial arachnids is relatively straightforward. A key to the superorders and orders of Acari may be found in chapter 8 Classification. Key 3. With a terminal spine or a compact or whiplike flagellum, posterior somatic segments distinctly narrowed Orders Scorpiones Fig.
Coxael-iV fused to podosomatic body wall so that the first completely free leg segment is the trochanter; tarsi of legs entire, without fissures see key in chapter 8 for additional characters Superorder Acariformes Figs. Superorder Parasitiformes Figs. The Exoskeletal Envelope -Theintegument of the typical acarine begins its development as undifferentiated tissue covered by a thin layer of cuticulin and separated from the underlying single-layered nucleated epidermis by a thin, poorly defined deposition zone called the Schmidt layer Fig.
As development proceeds, the cuticulin differentiates intO a thick, chitinous procuticle and a thin, overlying epicuticle. The procuticle is composed of an underlying endocuticle and an outer exocuticle, both of which may become sclerotized to varying degrees in various regions of the body through orthoquinone tanning.
New cuticle is laid down in the endocuticular layer and is preceded by secretion of granules, which coalesce into microfibers. These fibers then consolidate to form laminations as the cuticle matures Brody The width of the laminations decreases tOward the cuticular surface so that the lamina in the exocuticle and in the intervening "mesocuticle" become pro. Pore canals first appear in the endocuticular layers and move in a helical fashion toward the surface through the exocuticle, where they assume their typical linear, often branched, appearance NortOn et al.
The canals terminate in a profusion of micropores in the cuticulin layer just beneath the epicuticle. The epicuticie Fig. The inner epicuticie comprises an underlying homogenous layer and a covering cuticulin layer Alberti, Storch, and Renner ; Norton et al. The cerotegument, which mayor may not be conspicuous, consists of an underlying outer epicuticle covered by what appears to be a wax layer.
A dense, often highly sculptured cement layer completes the epicuticular complex. Brody felt that the cement layer was of great importance in maintaining water balance in immatures of the acariform mite Oppia eoloradensis Dolan.
The underlying cuticle or some portion of it was reported by Wharton and Devine to be a major pathway for the sorption of water vapor in the parasitiform mite Eehinolaelaps eehidnina Bed. In addition to the micropores that mark the termini of pore canals, a variety of macropores may be found in the cuticular surface of the body and appendages of mites. Like micropores, some of these apertures appear to have a secretOry function; others may serve as sites for insertions of sensory structures, while still others are thought to be the external manifestations of proprioceptors that mediate physical or chemical conditions within the mite itself also see Sensory Structures, below.
Athias-Henriot c, d developed a classification of cuticular openings for mesostigmatic parasitiform mites in which three categories of apertures were recognized: 1. Poroidotactic, which includes the Iyriform and rounded pores usually referred to as Iyrifissures or cupules Figs.
They are considered to be proprioceptOrs. Setal, which includes the insertions of tactile, olfactory, gustatOry, and chemosensory hairs and pegs Fig. Certain specialized setal sensory structures of ixodid ticks may be secretOry Schulze Adenotactic, which includes the openings of a variety of secretOry structures basically composing a subcuticular gland cell with a distal scierotized corolla or calyx, and a duct that connects the gland to the surface opening, or solenostome.
The sperm induction pores found in many Mesostigmata Fig. Cuticular glands are referred to as crobylophores by Athias-Henriot a. Additional information on acarine secretory systems may be found on pages Major Body Divisions The absence of primary segmentation in most acarines, the inherent physical plasticity of the exoskeletal envelope, and the early ontogenetic development in many mite taxa of a.
Estimates of the number of primitive segments in the Acari have varied from 12 to 22, depending on the taxon being studied and on interpretation Zachvatkin ; Van der Hammen d; Sitnikova ; Jesionowska The larval idiosoma was thought to comprise 11 somites, with a segment being added terminally at each postlarval molt anamorphosis.
Jesionowska discounted anamorphosis for larval Eupodoidea and Endeostigmata, suggesting instead that they already have a full complement of segments and that their development is based instead on growth. However, acari form mites typically undergo anamorphic addition of terminal hysterosomatic body segments during ontogeny, with the protonymph adding terminal segment AD to the six segments recognized in the larva C, D, E, F, H, and PS.
Concomitant additions may be seen in the number of genital papillae Fig. I4C , the number of cupule pairs that open on the hysterosoma four in the larva, five in the protonymph, and six in succeeding stases , and the number of setae associated with the genital and anal fields. Segmental amalgamation, or tagmosis, in the Acari has resulted in the formation of two major body divisions: an anterior gnathosoma more commonly called the capitulum in ticks and water mites , which is derived from the first two primitive somatic segments and which carries the primary organs of food acquisition; and the posterior idiosoma, which is the site for virtuallv all Othet life functions including locomOtion, postOral digestion, reproduction, respiration, and secretion Fig.
The two tagmata articulate by means of a circumcapitular furrow Fig. A dorsosejugal furrow sometimes referred to simply as a sejugal furrow may be found at a level between legs II-lII in opilioacariform and acari form mites Figs. The positions of these sutures can provide convenient landmarks for defining portions of the acarine body, even in those actinotrichid groups where somatic plasticity often has resulted in migration and obfuscation of basic somatic boundaries, and in the appearance of novel body regions and demarcating fissures.
Coineau b postulated that development of the caeculid habitus Fig. The circumcapitular suture is consequently obscured by an overlying abjugal furrow, which terminates posterodorsally at the sejugal furrow. Based on the position of the anal aperture and the lateral cupules of the typical caeculid, displacement of opisthonotal elements proceeds both anteriorly and posteriorly: anteriorly with the disappearance of the postpedal furrow and concomitant appearance of a disjugal furrow, and posteriorly with the development of the caudal bend and movement of the anal aperture from a terminal to a ventral position.
As may be seen from Fig. Based on the locations of external Structural signposts, similar migrations may be postulated for other acariform groups, including many brachypyline Oribatida see chapter Special problems arise in determining primitive segmentation and tagmatic migration in many parasitiform mites, in which extensive development of dorsal and ventral shields often obscures even the most basic body divisions Van der Hammen Here, the circumcapitular surure between the gnathosoma and idiosoma often is the only recognizable tagmatic landmark, and theories on the number of putative postpedal segments in parasitiform mites vary considerably Van der Hammen ; EvansSee what's new with book lending at a manual of acarology krantz pdf free Internet Archive. Uploaded a manual of acarology krantz pdf free Elena Regina on July 18, Search icon An illustration of a magnifying glass. User icon An illustration of a person's head and chest. Sign up Log in. Web icon An illustration of a computer application window Wayback Machine Texts icon An illustration of an open book. Books Video icon An illustration of two cells of a film strip. Video Audio icon An illustration of an audio speaker. Audio Software icon An illustration of a 3. Software Images icon An illustration of two photographs. Images Krant icon An illustration of a heart shape Manua Ellipses icon An illustration of text ellipses. Walter A manual of acarology. Item Preview. EMBED for wordpress. Want more? Advanced embedding details, examples, and help! Walter : A manual of acarology. There are no reviews yet. Be the first one to write a review. Folkscanomy: A A manual of acarology krantz pdf free of Books. Additional Collections. Request PDF | On Sep 1, , David Grimaldi published A Manual of Acarology. Third Edition. Edited by G. W. Krantz and D. E. Walter. Lubbock (Texas). A manual of acarology. Create lists, bibliographies and reviews: Sign in or create a free account Summary: Acarologists have discovered a multitude of new taxa, made major Classification / E.E. Lindquist, G.W. Krantz, and D.E. Walter G.W. Krantz & D.E. Walter A manual of acarology. Addeddate: Identifier: Acarology Identifier-ark: ark://. A manual of acarology / G.W. Krantz and D.E. Walter, editors ; contributing authors, Valerie Behan-Pelletier [et al.]. Book; Book/Illustrated; Government. elmarkinninger.biz - Free ebook download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read book online for A manual of acarologv / G.W. Krantz let aI. Your use of this PDF, the BioOne Complete website, and all posted and been A Manual of Acarology, first published in Krantz, G.W. () Free-living Mesostigmata from Garamba National Park, Congo. KEYWORDS — mite; spider; Acarology; World Wide Web; ecology; evolution; internet; key Almanac of Alberta Oribatida (downloadable pdf of traditional dichotomous keys, descriptions, and to be presented as taxonomy-free entities in these Krantz G.W., Walter D.E. (Eds.), — A Manual of Ac-. A Manual of Acarology by G. W. Krantz, , available at Book Depository with free delivery worldwide. Free Online Library: Krantz, G. W., and Walter, D. E. (Eds.) A Manual of Acarology.(Book review) by "Florida Entomologist"; Biological. The editors discuss collection acaroloty rearing techniques in detail, along with specimen preparation and methods of preservation. An international journal of the Systematic and Applied Acarology Society. Check out the top books of the year on our page Best Books of You also may irantz to try some of these bookshopswhich may or may not sell this item. We were unable to find this edition in any bookshop we are able to search. Out of these cookies, the cookies that are categorized as necessary are stored on your browser as they are as essential for the working of basic functionalities of the website. Systematic position of the acari, Morphology and function, Reproduction and embryogenesis, Oviposition and life stages, Habits and habitats, Collection, rearing. Acarologists have been anxiously awaiting the Third Edition, as a consolidation of the enormous changes that have been going on in acarology at all levels. We also use third-party cookies that help us analyze and understand how you use this website. These increases in knowledge have been matched by an increase in the size of the Manualfrom pages to a hefty pages. Read, highlight, and take notes, across web, tablet, and phone.